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This may be beneficial for the South-East Asian region for establishment their trade relations with rest of the world. The quantitative methodology is used to test the research model to determine the relationship between factors that affect the development of the marketing consulting services. The study is based on a scale for measuring factors and the qualitative results are adjusted to business context in Vietnam.

The development of Bandung as a Creative City has been studied and formulated in its Creative City Road Map which sets six indicators: creative policy; creative infrastructure; law, ethics and intellectual property rights; creative support system; creative capacity and economic contributions. The study objectives are to map the performance and competitive advantage of small or medium enterprises in the creative industry in Bandung City, Indonesia. Keywords : Creative City; creative industry; indicator.

Pharmaceutical industry has a unique nature due to higher involvement of science in product development and requires firms to develop distinctive and complex capabilities. Pharmaceutical firms from developed countries mostly acquire firms from developing market for sake of manufacturing know how and for securing host market. Sri Lanka has produced many independent inventors with high technical merit, and many of have won awards in international competitions and exhibitions.

However, the country remains heavily dependent on the import of technologies. By improving the local innovation system, the country may be able to achieve a higher level of economic success. In this study, we investigate award winners of the Sri Lanka Inventors Commission SLIC , who likely have the highest potential to commercialize their inventions.

Based on our findings, we make recommendations for inventors, national entities such as the SLIC, and supranational entities interested in promoting economic development regarding the proper use of the invention process and support for the facilitation of commercialisation of these inventions.

Changes in the stock prices during the turbulent times provide an opportunity to test the validity of EMH. Unexpected events such as stock market crashes, political events, earthquakes, terrorist attacks etc. In efficient market the stock prices are expected to behave differently in response to such events, as the new information will have different economic impact on individual firms as well as shareholders wealth.

Contrary to rational expectations, market participants act irrationally in favor of potential arbitrage opportunities. This paper investigates the pricing behavior of Indian stock market with the sudden changes in high denomination currency notes on shareholders wealth. Using event study methodology, the paper analyses the major political event that had strong economic implication on market participants. The results indicate insignificant negative abnormal returns to shareholders of Indian companies.

The Political Causality of Difference

It boosts innovation, increases firms competitiveness, enhances the belongingness of employees, promotes the launch of entrepreneurial ventures and consequently improves business performance. Though the importance of autonomy is widely recognised, but, research in the field of entrepreneurship and strategic management has often been impeded due to non-availability of the firm level inventory of strategic autonomy construct.

This study aims to examine the nature of the strategic autonomy construct.


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A battery of six items has been identified and examined for face validity, content validity, factor structure, dimensionality, internal consistency and convergent validity. The proposed inventory has also been examined in different organisational contexts and found to be valid, reliable and parsimonious.

Chi-square test of independence assesses the association of strategic autonomy construct with the diverse characteristics of an organisation. Findings reveal that the strategic autonomy construct is either weakly or not significantly associated with the age, size, type and nature of an organisation. The study has practical applications and theoretical implications for entrepreneurs and academicians. The number of data was 3, families. The result showed that the cost variable of disease prevention BPP , scholarships BP , food security JP , health insurance AK , average length of schooling RLS , and cost for non-formal education BPN affect and is statistically significant to poverty status in at 5 percent significance.

Also, Calorie consumption per capita KK and protein consumption per capita KP affect on poverty status at 10 percent significance in The factors were: 1 foreign sales; 2 corporate governance, measured by the size of the board of commissioners and percentage of independent commissioners; and 3 foreign investor ownership. The size of the company was employed in this research as a control variable. This exploratory research employed quantitative methods. Using purposive sampling, data were obtained from 27 manufacturing companies financial statements over a three-year period The data were analysed using binary logistic regression.

The results show that the size of the company positively affects transfer pricing, as does foreign ownership, but foreign sales do not. The size of the board and percentage of independent commissioners negatively affect transfer pricing.

Keywords : corporate governance; foreign sales; foreign ownership; transfer pricing. Online social networks provide an easy opportunity for people to consult peers, share an opinion and pass on information related to brands among peers.

Bibliographic Information

This basic idea of sharing information by consumers with other consumers lead to the formation of momentum effect. The purpose of this research was to study whether the momentum effect on social networking sites influences brand loyalty and brand advocacy. It was found that momentum effect influences both brand loyalty as well as brand advocacy, but the influence on brand loyalty was more. Sharing of brand-related communication by a network of friends in online social networking sites help in the creation of more brand loyalty than brand advocacy. Keywords : Momentum effect; social networking sites; brand loyalty; brand advocacy.

In business research, longitudinal studies are particularly effective for measuring how business policies and strategies affect the performance of a business firm over time. The literatures call for more longitudinal studies runs up against a rather incoherent and potentially confusing use of terminology and typology undermining the accessibility for business academics and practitioners who are not familiar with this area. This study provides a thorough review of longitudinal study typologies, including an annotated, illustrated methodological framework integrating the key facets of observational longitudinal studies.

Although the framework is generalizable beyond the behavioral or business context, it refrains from dealing with the specific nuances of areas such as medicine. This review and framework should be beneficial to academics and other researchers in properly describing, setting up, and understanding longitudinal studies.

Keywords : longitudinal studies; observational longitudinal designs; cohort studies. A study on the individuals online shopping continuance intention on Amazon. It aims to examine the effects of marketing strategies, service quality, relative price, advantage, trust, through a path model derived conceptually from the Expectation Confirmation model and Technology Adoption model.


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The data, collected from respondents, was analysed on SmartPLS 3 to test the proposed model and the hypothesis. Findings- Results suggests that marketing strategies drive perceived price advantage which in turn drives perceived service quality. Perceived service quality leads to satisfaction which in turn leads to expectation confirmation and buying intention. The research also establishes that perceived ease of use affects perceived usefulness whereas perceived usefulness affects the buying intention directly.

The research also establishes a positive relationship between perceived price advantage and perceived ease of use on trust. Research limitations-The research is based on a rather small sample size of respondents though it does consider both genders almost equally and all relevant age groups to provide a clear understanding. The data was collected using non-probabilistic, convenience-based approach. Practical implications- The study will help online marketers in devising effective marketing strategies and building customer loyalty which is rather low in this era of online shopping.

The study also highlights the role of marketing strategies used by online retailers that indirectly drives satisfaction and buying intention. Keywords : expectation confirmation theory; technology adoption model; continuance intention; SmartPls 3; service quality; trust; online shopping; social media marketing; consumer electronics; perceived ease of use; perceived usefulness; relative advantage; buying intention; customer loyalty. This exploratory study is designed to initiate dialogue and to explore the complexity of the operating environment and perceived business support needs in the ever-more complex and dynamic e-environment.

The development of the internet has altered the manner in which the hospitality industry operates; offering global marketing opportunities, open-source review sites and perhaps crucially the opportunity to interact with and sell directly to the consumer. Results indicate that the positive aspects of the internet were perceived to outweigh the disadvantages; however, the learning challenges identified were primarily around the effective management of on-line resources and global reputation.

The vital role of small family owned and managed hotels in the development of a coherent tourism offering for Scotland is acknowledged here and can be additionally allied to geography. There are areas in Scotland, and indeed much of the world, that draw tourists yet are not sufficiently populous to host hotel chains or even specialist boutique hotels.

Globalization and Development

In part, the reason tourists are drawn to those areas is precisely their relatively undeveloped nature, yet this creates a challenge for business learning within small independent hotels. Keywords : Internet; hotels; family business; globalisation; rural business. One main beneficiary of this decline was China, which was able to absorb roughly 2.

Since , however, it has often been discussed that reindustrialisation in United States is potentially occurring, largely caused by the reshoring of US industry from overseas. Hence, the main goal of this paper is to analyse the influence of locational factors on the reindustrialisation process in the United States through reshoring from China.

Chapter 3. The Globalization Hypothesis and Its Fallacies

The research design is an embedded single-case study. The applicability of traditional location theories and their locational factors are also examined here. This paper evaluates the development of labour cost, agglomeration effect, land cost, and raw material cost over recent years as factors encouraging the reindustrialisation process.

Transportation cost and the impact of political institutions offer contrasting pictures.

1. Globalization in the History of Ideas

While high intermodal freight costs in the US and an appreciating Yuan promote the reindustrialisation process, low ocean shipping costs and enormous business incentives in China weaken the positive effects. All in all, it is concluded that most locational factors have changed in favourable ways for the United States and thus made manufacturing in the United States comparatively more attractive.

This paper adds to the literature by examining the locational factors in the reindustrialisation process through reshoring from China to the US. This is done via an extensive literature review and analysis of historical data. Although the existing literature has devoted considerable attention to various aspects of ID separately, there is little understanding of the potential interactions between the formal and informal aspects of ID.

Trade and Globalization - Our World in Data

We examine the effects of these two aspects of ID simultaneously on cross-border acquisitions and test their interactions. Our findings provide strategy implications for corporations engaged in cross-border acquisitions. Keywords : cross-border acquisitions; institutional distance; country connectedness; formal and informal institutions.

The purpose is to document the opportunities and challenges as well as to celebrate the successes associated with indigenous African businesses and entrepreneurship. This is a case study research and due to the nature of the study a qualitative inductive approach was adopted and data was collected using key informant interviews coupled with participant and non-participant observations.