Abstract The genus Ficus is unique in that it has a closed inflorescence fig holding all of the flowers inside its cavity, which is isolated from the outside world by a fleshy barrier: the fig wall. Baijnath H, Naicker S. Developmental anatomy of Ficus ingens syconia in relation to its wasp faunula. Plasticity and diversity of the phenology of dioecious Ficus species in Taiwan. Acta Oecol. Ficus Moraceae and fig wasps Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea in Taiwan. Berg, C. Moreae, Artocarpeae, and Dorstenia Moraceae with introductions to the family and Ficus and with additions and corrections to Flora Neotropica Monograph 7.
Flora Neotropica. Google Scholar. Moraceae Ficus. In Flora Malesiana. Edited b y H. National Herbarium Nederland, Leiden, the Netherlands.
African fig trees and fig wasps. Bronstein JL. The nonpollinating wasp fauna of Ficus pertusa : exploitation of a mutualism? Carvajal S, Shabes LK. Moraceae Ibugana 13 : [In Spanish with English abstract. Fig wasp species of Ficus superba Miq. Fujian Normal Univ.
Moreae, Artocarpeae, and Dorstenia (Moraceae). Flora Neotropica (83)
The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase. Morphological evolution in the mulberry family Moraceae Syst.
A fig crop pollinated by three or more species of agaonid fig wasps. Corner, E. The classification of Moraceae. Dixon DJ. A taxonomic revision of the Australian Ficus species in the section Malvanthera Ficus subg. Evans DE. Aerenchyma formation. New Phytol. Eyde RH. Reproductive structures and evolution in Ludwigia Onagraceae.
Fruit and seed. Galil J, Eisikowitch D.
Flowering cycles and fruit types of Ficus sycomorus in Israel. The Moreae are a tribe of trees, shrubs, climbers and herbs that are usually dioecious , their inflorescences are simpler than most other Moraceae. Their flowers are adapted for wind pollination. Members of the tribe are characterised by having inflexed or " urticaceous " stamens ; the way in which the anther filaments elongate in the developing flower bud causes the anthers to "spring back explosively" when the flower opens.
This releases pollen into the air, facilitating wind-pollination; these characters are considered plesiomorphic —traits that were present in the ancestors of the Moraceae which have been retained in the Moreae. The tribe is based on Morus , the genus that includes the mulberries; the name Morus was first published by Carl Linnaeus in in Species Plantarum.
About 40 generic names have been coined for these species, resulting in a situation with many genera and few species. In British botanist E. Corner reworked this arrangement, merging many genera.
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This resulting in an expansion of several genera, most notably Maclura , Streblus and Trophis ; these were further reorganised by Berg in the s. He found that while it was easy to define the tribe based on the presence of urticaceous stamens , the definitions of the genera were more challenging. In an attempt to sort out the evolutionary history of the Moraceae Shannon Datwyler and George Weiblen use the chloroplast ndhF gene to build a phylogeny of the family, they determined that the tribe Moreae was polyphyletic and consisted of two groups—a core "Moreae sensu stricto " Moreae s.
Streblus and Trophis were found to be polyphyletic, with some species in each genus being placed in Moreae s. They also transferred Bagassa and Sorocea from the Artocarpeae to the Moreae. Based on chloroplast ndhF gene sequences , Moreae s. So defined, Moreae s. Moreae s. The latter group was found to be a sister to the tribe Dorstenieae.
Few fossils can be definitively assigned to the Moreae. Fruits from the upper Eocene , Miocene and Tertiary have been assigned to Broussonetia , and fruit matching modern Morus have been found in the early Eocene. Based on rates of molecular evolution in chloroplast and nuclear genes, the Moreae s.
Nyree Zerega and colleagues proposed a Laurasian origin for the Moreae s. Most genera in the tribe are predominantly tropical, sometimes with a few temperate species like Maclura. Two genera, Broussonetia and Morus , are predominantly temperate. Artocarpeae Artocarpeae is a tribe within the plant family Moraceae. It includes 70 to 87 species including Artocarpus altilis, the breadfruit.
Species in the Artocarpeae are tropical trees or shrubs which, like all members of the Moraceae, produce latex. Most are dioecious ; the male and female inflorescences include a variety of compact structures. The Artocarpeae is the least homogeneous of the five tribes; the tribe is based on the largest and best-known genus in the group.
The first post-Linnaean description of the species was done by Sydney Parkinson during James Cook's first voyage to the Pacific. Parkinson, an artist employed by Joseph Banks , died on the return leg of the voyage and his descriptions were published posthumously by his brother Stanfield Parkinson in Parkinson named the species Sitodium altile. Three years Johann Reinhold Forster and Georg Forster published a description of the species using the name Artocarpus communis.
Over the next years the name Artocarpus was much more used, leading to its preservation as a conserved name. In addition, members of the genus Artocarpus are cultivated throughout the tropics Artocarpus altilis, the breadfruit, A.
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The native range of Artocarpus, the largest genus, includes tropical Asia, New Guinea , the Philippines and Micronesia. Artocarpus was introduced across Oceania by Polynesians colonists. Batocarpus and Clarisia are native to the Neotropics. Chloroplast Chloroplasts are organelles that conduct photosynthesis , where the photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll captures the energy from sunlight, converts it, stores it in the energy-storage molecules ATP and NADPH while freeing oxygen from water in plant and algal cells. Chloroplasts carry out a number of other functions, including fatty acid synthesis, much amino acid synthesis, the immune response in plants; the number of chloroplasts per cell varies from one, in unicellular algae , up to in plants like Arabidopsis and wheat.
A chloroplast is a type of organelle known as a plastid , characterized by its two membranes and a high concentration of chlorophyll. Other plastid types, such as the leucoplast and the chromoplast , contain little chlorophyll and do not carry out photosynthesis.
Chloroplasts are dynamic—they circulate and are moved around within plant cells, pinch in two to reproduce. Their behavior is influenced by environmental factors like light color and intensity. Chloroplasts, like mitochondria , contain their own DNA, thought to be inherited from their ancestor—a photosynthetic cyanobacterium , engulfed by an early eukaryotic cell. Chloroplasts cannot be made by the plant cell and must be inherited by each daughter cell during cell division.
With one exception, all chloroplasts can be traced back to a single endosymbiotic event, when a cyanobacterium was engulfed by the eukaryote. Despite this, chloroplasts can be found in an wide set of organisms, some not directly related to each other—a consequence of many secondary and tertiary endosymbiotic events; the word chloroplast is derived from the Greek words chloros, which means green, plastes, which means "the one who forms".
The first definitive description of a chloroplast was given by Hugo von Mohl in as discrete bodies within the green plant cell. In , A. Schimper would name these bodies as "chloroplastids". In , Eduard Strasburger adopted the term "chloroplasts". Chloroplasts are one of many types of organelles in the plant cell, they are considered to have originated from cyanobacteria through endosymbiosis—when a eukaryotic cell engulfed a photosynthesizing cyanobacterium that became a permanent resident in the cell.
Mitochondria are thought to have come from a similar event, where an aerobic prokaryote was engulfed; this origin of chloroplasts was first suggested by the Russian biologist Konstantin Mereschkowski in after Andreas Schimper observed in that chloroplasts resemble cyanobacteria.