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The garden at the Naoshima Fukutake Art Museum , using sculpture to imitate the form of island on the horizon. The ability to capture the essence of nature makes the Japanese gardens distinctive and appealing to observers. Traditional Japanese gardens are very different in style from occidental gardens. The contrast between western flower gardens and Japanese gardens is profound. The Japanese have always had a spiritual connection with their land and the spirits that are one with nature, which explains why they prefer to incorporate natural materials in their gardens.

Traditional Japanese gardens can be categorized into three types: tsukiyama hill gardens , karesansui dry gardens and chaniwa gardens tea gardens. The main purpose of a Japanese garden is to attempt to be a space that captures the natural beauties of nature.

The small space given to create these gardens usually poses a challenge for the gardeners. Due to the absolute importance of the arrangement of natural rocks and trees, finding the right material becomes highly selective. The serenity of a Japanese landscape and the simple but deliberate structures of the Japanese gardens are what truly make the gardens unique. Japanese gardens always have water, either a pond or stream, or, in the dry rock garden, represented by white sand.

In Buddhist symbolism, water and stone are the yin and yang , two opposites that complement and complete each other. A traditional garden will usually have an irregular-shaped pond or, in larger gardens, two or more ponds connected by a channel or stream, and a cascade, a miniature version of Japan's famous mountain waterfalls. In traditional gardens, the ponds and streams are carefully placed according to Buddhist geomancy , the art of putting things in the place most likely to attract good fortune.

The rules for the placement of water were laid out in the first manual of Japanese gardens, the Sakuteiki "Records of Garden Making" , in the 11th century. According to the Sakuteiki , the water should enter the garden from the east or southeast and flow toward the west because the east is the home of the Green Dragon seiryu an ancient Chinese divinity adapted in Japan, and the west is the home of the White Tiger, the divinity of the east. Water flowing from east to west will carry away evil, and the owner of the garden will be healthy and have a long life.

According to the Sakuteiki , another favorable arrangement is for the water to flow from north, which represents water in Buddhist cosmology, to the south, which represents fire, which are opposites yin and yang and therefore will bring good luck. The Sakuteiki recommends several possible miniature landscapes using lakes and streams: the "ocean style", which features rocks that appear to have been eroded by waves, a sandy beach, and pine trees; the "broad river style", recreating the course of a large river, winding like a serpent; the "marsh pond" style, a large still pond with aquatic plants; the "mountain torrent style", with many rocks and cascades; and the "rose letters" style, an austere landscape with small, low plants, gentle relief and many scattered flat rocks.

Traditional Japanese gardens have small islands in the lakes. The Sakuteiki describes different kinds of artificial island which can be created in lakes, including the "mountainous island", made up of jagged vertical rocks mixed with pine trees, surrounded by a sandy beach; the "rocky island", composed of "tormented" rocks appearing to have been battered by sea waves, along with small, ancient pine trees with unusual shapes; the "cloud island", made of white sand in the rounded white forms of a cumulus cloud; and the "misty island", a low island of sand, without rocks or trees.

A cascade or waterfall is an important element in Japanese gardens, a miniature version of the waterfalls of Japanese mountain streams. The Sakuteiki describes seven kinds of cascades. It notes that if possible a cascade should face toward the moon and should be designed to capture the moon's reflection in the water.

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Youkoukan Garden in Fukui Prefecture recreates a miniature beach and a mountain. Cascade at Keitaku-en garden near Osaka.

By Frances Hodgson Burnett, Adapted by James Howe

Rock, sand and gravel are an essential feature of the Japanese garden. A vertical rock may represent Mount Horai, the legendary home of the Eight Immortals, or Mount Sumeru of Buddhist teaching, or a carp jumping from the water. A flat rock might represent the earth.


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Sand or gravel can represent a beach, or a flowing river. Rough volcanic rocks kasei-gan are usually used to represent mountains or as stepping stones. Smooth and round sedimentary rocks suisei-gan are used around lakes or as stepping stones. Hard metamorphic rocks are usually placed by waterfalls or streams.

Rocks are traditionally classified as tall vertical, low vertical, arching, reclining, or flat. Rocks should vary in size and color but from each other, but not have bright colors, which would lack subtlety. Rocks with strata or veins should have the veins all going in the same direction, and the rocks should all be firmly planted in the earth, giving an appearance of firmness and permanence.

Rocks are arranged in careful compositions of two, three, five or seven rocks, with three being the most common. In a three-arrangement, a tallest rock usually represents heaven, the shortest rock is the earth, and the medium-sized rock is humanity, the bridge between heaven and earth.

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Sometimes one or more rocks, called suteishi , "nameless" or "discarded" are placed in seemingly random locations in the garden, to suggest spontaneity, though their placement is carefully chosen. In ancient Japan, sand suna and gravel jari were used around Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples.

Later it was used in the Japanese rock garden or Zen Buddhist gardens to represent water or clouds. White sand represented purity, but sand could also be gray, brown or bluish-black. Rocks in the Garden of the Blissful Mountain at Daitoku-ji. Ankokuji garden in Hiroshima features rocks of different but harmonious sizes and colors. A large flat rock on an island in Korakuen garden in Tokyo, which represents a turtle's head. Carefully positioned stones around the pond in Ritsurin Garden. Combination of checkerboard pattern and watter patterns at the Negoro-Temple Negoro-ji , Prefecture Wakayama.

Selection and subsequent placement of rocks was and still is a central concept in creating an aesthetically pleasing garden by the Japanese.

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During the Heian period, the concept of placing stones as symbolic representations of islands — whether physically existent or nonexistent — began to take hold, and can be seen in the Japanese word shima , which is of "particular importance The specific placement of stones in Japanese gardens to symbolically represent islands and later to include mountains , is found to be an aesthetically pleasing property of traditional Japanese gardens.

Here are some of the aesthetic principles, as stated by Thomas Heyd:. Rock placement is a general "aim to portray nature in its essential characteristics" [31] — the essential goal of all Japanese gardens. In Heian-period Japanese gardens, built in the Chinese model, buildings occupied as much or more space than the garden.

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The garden was designed to be seen from the main building and its verandas, or from small pavilions built for that purpose. In later gardens, the buildings were less visible. Rustic teahouses were hidden in their own little gardens, and small benches and open pavilions along the garden paths provided places for rest and contemplation. In later garden architecture, walls of houses and teahouses could be opened to provide carefully framed views of the garden. The garden and the house became one. The Kotoji Toro , a two-legged stone lantern that is one of the most well-known symbols of the Kenroku-en Garden.

A chashitsu or teahouse in Jo-an garden in Inuyama , from The simple and unadorned zen teahouse style began to be used on all Japanese buildings, from garden pavilions to palaces.


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  7. This teahouse was declared a National Treasure of Japan in The architecture of the main house of the Katsura Imperial Villa — was inspired by the simplicity of the tea house. Bridges first appeared in the Japanese garden during the Heian period. Bridges could be made of stone ishibashi , or of wood, or made of logs with earth on top, covered with moss dobashi ; they could be either arched soribashi or flat hirabashi.

    Sometimes if they were part of a temple garden, they were painted red, following the Chinese tradition, but for the most part they were unpainted. During the Edo period, when large promenade gardens became popular, streams and winding paths were constructed, with a series of bridges, usually in a rustic stone or wood style, to take visitors on a tour of the scenic views of the garden. A bridge at Tokushima castle made of two stones resting on a third stone Wood and stone bridge at Suizen-ji garden. The garden was begun in Wooden bridge in Ritsurin Garden , Between and Rustic bridge at Tensha-en garden in Uwajima A wooden bridge covered with earth and moss dobashi at Sorakuen.

    Originally they were located only at Buddhist temples, where they lined the paths and approaches to the temple, but in the Heian period they began to be used at Shinto shrines as well. According to tradition, during the Momoyama period they were introduced to the tea garden by the first great tea masters, and in later gardens they were used purely for decoration.

    In its complete and original form, a dai-doro, like the pagoda , represents the five elements of Buddhist cosmology. The segments express the idea that after death our physical bodies will go back to their original, elemental form. Stone water basins, tsukubai were originally placed in gardens for visitors to wash their hands and mouth before the tea ceremony.

    The water is provided to the basin by a bamboo pipe, or kakei , and they usually have a wooden ladle for drinking the water.

    autonomsystems.ru/img/chloroquine-phosphate-buy-shipping-to-ca.php In tea gardens, the basin was placed low to the ground, so the drinker had to bend over to get his water.